Differences Faster EFT vs. EFT

7 Major Differences Between EFT & FasterEFTAnd Why I Chose To Work With FasterEFTBy Mia Doucet 

Before exploring the differences between Classic EFT1 (which I originally studied) and FasterEFT, I want to make it clear to you that, although my personal preference is FasterEFT, I have immense respect for EFT and all other energy therapies and their practitioners. I also have immense respect for the people who blazed the trails along the way for Robert G. Smith, founder of F-EFT: Dr. Roger Callahan (TFT), Gary Craig (EFT), Dr. Larry Nims (BSFF), Richard Bandler and John Grinder (NLP) who codified the work of Dr. Milton H. Erickson.

There. Now that this is out of the way, let’s look at what the two modalities have in common.

On the surface, EFT and FasterEFT appear to have much in common. But in fact, each method approaches tapping and healing from a totally different mindset or perspective.

First . . .

How EFT and FasterEFT (F-EFT) Are Alike

1. Both are universal healing tools that are based on the belief that the mind and body are one.

2. Both involve tapping. In a moment, I’ll discuss the differing viewpoints as to why tapping works and what tapping accomplishes.

3. Both are relatively painless. Any emotional discomfort is minimal and lasts only a few moments. There is no need to relive all of the horrid details of earlier experiences that shaped our lives. Even if it does hurt, it’s no worse than what we are doing to ourselves in our heads on a consistent basis. Done correctly in a session, a client relives the bad memory for the very last time.

4. Both approaches address the natural resistance that most people have to giving up familiar patterns and belief, although they do so in dramatically dissimilar ways. I’ll have more to say about that in a moment.

5. Both have “stunning” success rates and produce profound and lasting results. Now, here’s one of the reasons for my bias: EFT produces lasting results if you get to all the aspects associated with a troubling experience. F-EFT produces results because you’re changing how the subconscious mind encodes, processes and reproduces events from the past. You’re not just doing away with a negative experience, but rather you’re getting rid of the way your mind keeps re-creating the problem.

6. Both empower people to take responsibility for their own healing, to tap on their own and not become dependent on therapists or practitioners for their healing.

7. Both were born of genius and guts. I think of genius as the ability to see through and simplify the complex. Most people would agree it takes guts to be able to challenge and break away from accepted belief systems, risking the scorn of one’s mentors and peers.

Gary Craigi, founder of EFT, said he looked forward to a time that EFT would become obsolete because an even more elegant way of releasing issues had been discovered. Then, he said, he could retire. Gary has retired. I don’t know if F-EFT is the “more elegant way” he referred to.

Let’s see what you think . . .

How Classic EFT and Faster EFT Differ Difference #1: Core Principles

Essence of EFT Classic EFT is based on the belief that “The cause of all physical, mental and emotional discomfort is a disruption in the body’s energy system.” It is “a literal disruption in the energy flow.” Here we see the influence of traditional Chinese Medicine which claims that pain is caused by a blockage in the flow of life energy.

According to EFT, memories may contribute but are not the cause of the negative emotions. The cause is the emotional charge or disruption. When the energy system is disrupted, we experience physical, mental or emotional symptoms.

Gary Craig was objecting to common practices in conventional psycho- therapy, which believes that memories are the cause of our problems. In order to treat a person, traditional therapy requires a person to relive the memory of an emotionally painful event in vivid detail. (Often without resolution, I might add.)

Having studied various forms of psychotherapy in the past few decades, including an intensive three-year Gestalt Therapy practitioner program . . . and having spent over $100,000 in pursuit of relief from the pain of my own sad past, I can assure you that traditional therapy is painful and does not necessarily cause positive changes or make one happier in the process.

So, when I first encountered EFT and finally began to see results in my own life, I totally bought into the belief that the reason we have problems is a disruption in the energy system. And that tapping works because it clears the disruption by restoring the free flow of energy. It made all the sense in the world. And I was deeply appreciative of Gary Craig’s insights and brilliance.

And then . . . along came Robert Smith.ii

Essence of FasterEFT in a Nutshell Robert’s FasterEFT system operates from the belief that there is no disruption in the energy system. In fact, he says, that is physically impossible because if our energy were blocked with a negative emotion such as anger for example, we would be stuck with anger. But, if in the next moment we can experience a positive emotion such as love for a small baby, then obviously the meridian isn’t blocked.

“It is not a disruption but a creation. It’s about subconscious imprints recorded in the brain in childhood and our emotional attachments to what we have perceived.” ~ Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFT

EFT believes that “Your energy system is a set of electrical circuits and psychological reversal is ‘like your batteries are in backwards.’”

So in order for the rest of the process to work, you have to take care of any interfering energy blockages in the system by setting up the tapping with an “even though” statement or affirmation (said three times while tapping on the Karate Chop point or the sore spot).

F-EFT does not believe in psychological reversal.

“If you understand and eliminate the structure of problems there is no psychological reversal.” ~ Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFT

If the cause of all problems is a disruption in our energy system, then that means something inside of us is broken . . . something isn’t working correctly. But, Robert insists, there are no broken people. All of us are successfully producing whatever it is we know how to produce based on what we have encoded within us. F-EFT puts a big emphasis on empowering ourselves by taking responsibility for everything that we create in our lives. If we have the power to create it, then we have the power to change it or cure it.

CHILDHOOD IMPRINTS The source of our problems, he says, is birth! From the moment of birth (indeed, from the moment of conception) we’re recording our experiences of the world as subconscious imprints in the brain. We have problems because we were born into a world where the people around us had problems, and we learned how to cope . . . from them.

The real cause of all our problems is perception, meaning that we see and interpret what’s happening to us now through the filters and recorded information from our past. We “know” how to interpret and deal with what’s happening to us now based on what we learned from past memories and references.

IT’S A CREATION The past does not exist . . . it’s over. However our past seems real to us because of the emotional charge that is still present when we remember things. The future likewise doesn’t exist, except that we take our emotional programming from our past experiences and project it onto the future. Nothing is real except the present moment. All else is re-creation, based on what is in the subconscious mind.

While EFT treats physical, mental and emotional symptoms as a disruption in the energy system, F-EFT treats these symptoms as a skillful creation of the subconscious mind. We’re doing something right in order to create and re- create an emotion over and over again. We’re doing something right in order to have a problem and in order to keep producing it. If we’re doing something right, then we are not broken, we are skillful.

“You’re not broken, you’re doing something right. You’re successfully manifesting what you have been imprinted with. If you’re the creator of your memories, you can change your life by changing your memories.” ~Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFT

If our subconscious is the cause of our own problems, then we can address the whole subconscious system that produced those problems. Here we see the influence of Dr. Fred Gallo and BSFFiii.

Our task as F-EFT practitioners is to figure out what people are doing inside their mind to create, manifest and produce the problem. I’ll have more to say about that in the discussion of the role of NLP (next up).

IT SEEMS REAL BECAUSE OF THE PHYSICAL REACTION “Stress is the body’s reaction to negative perceptions.” Since the mind and the body are one, our thoughts manifest as symptoms or emotions in the physical body. Whatever we think, our body naturally follows. It’s the physical manifestation that makes it seem real.

This means that at any moment, you and I can create sadness or anger if we know how. We just have to think a sad or angry thought. Our mind will trigger our body and make it seem real somewhere in the body.

IN ROBERT’S WORDS “Both systems are operating from two different models of the world. One believes that ‘energy is out to get you.’ The other is, ‘you’re creating the energy and you can change how you feel. You can change your mind. You can change your life.’”

Now get this . . .

Where EFT says that our problems are caused by an energy disruption, F-EFT says what we want to do is create a disruption in the communication system. We want to temporarily disrupt the message of stress from reaching the body. When we create a disruption, then we create changes.

So the tapping actually breaks the pattern that has been creating chaos in the body’s central nervous system. This causes a positive mind/body shift.

Difference #2: The Role of NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming)

In simple terms, NLP is the study of how we think, how we structure our thoughts, how we communicate, and how we internally process our experiences.

While Gary Craig studied NLP, its influence is not nearly as evident in EFT as it is in F-EFT.

NLP is a major component of F-EFT. Its ultimate goal is to change the past and the future through restructuring a person’s thinking in the present.

STATES OF MIND So, the F-EFT emphasis is on the structure of the thinking and the structure of the problem itself. How does the person internally represent and hold in memory the things that happened in his past? How does she process thoughts and memories (visual, kinesthetic, auditory) of the things that happened to her? And how do they repress or replay them in their minds? What are they doing inside their mind to keep past memories alive and make them seem real today?

When we step into a person’s mind using the skills taught in NLP, we start to understand how they produce their world. And once we are able to access these internal states of mind it’s easier to make the desired changes.

TRANCE Don’t let the “t” word scare you. You and I automatically go into hypnotic trances many times each day. How many times have you had this experience . . . you’ve been driving your car and you are daydreaming, and you arrive home safely. You know you’ve been on the road. You may even have been driving in the dark. You know you must have stopped at red lights and stop signs. But you have no conscious recollection of the drive. It’s like your car knew the way and drove itself home. That’s what a trance is like.

When we’re feeling bad, we’re slipping out of the present tense and into that old, familiar, negative hypnotic state or trance. It takes no effort at all to get there. Our unconscious takes over. That’s how we keep the past alive. As Robert says, “memories buried alive never die.” (Until you aim at them and tap them away, of course.)

When you look at Robert’s FasterEFT videos on YouTube you can actually see the client go into a hypnotic trance. Sometimes their eyes glaze over as the person relives a past experience. It’s like a past event has come alive again, in the present moment. You can see the emotion in their face and eyes and their whole physiology changes. Whenever we are not fully engaged right here in the present, we are in a trance. These trances seem real but they aren’t, because only the present moment is real. The past is past and the future isn’t here yet.

The moment we go back to any point beyond this present moment, it’s all made up. We feel it to be true because we’re in a trance and experience real sensations in our body. Someone might have hurt you or me in the past, but it isn’t happening in the moment, except in our minds. And by the way, when we remember something and re-experience all of the details and pain, all of the actors in that memory are actually us. (The perpetrator isn’t here now.) This is why Robert says, “When you remember something from the past and it causes you pain, it’s now you doing it to you.”

The effective practitioner is pulling the person in and out of the trance state. Into the trance, then back into the moment, into the trance, then back into the present moment. Each time this happens, the practitioner is allowed deeper access to the client’s subconscious model of the world, where they can pull out interlocking threads.

“If we take control of our mind, we take control of our life. Otherwise, we train our children to have our problems.”

~Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFT 

Difference #3: Meridian Tapping

Tapping works, no matter who does it, because it addresses the mind|body system via electrical impulses that travel along the meridian system.

BUT HOW? Viewed from their two very different perspectives, tapping is effective for very different reasons.

EFT uses tapping to remove “static” from your electrical system. I think the EFT practitioner might say that the most powerful part of EFT is the tapping and the words that accompany the tapping.

Not so with FasterEFT.

FURTHER INFLUENCE OF NLP F-EFT believes you get quicker results when you incorporate NLP understandings of how the mind works with the tapping. Knowing how a person encodes and processes information through their five senses and working with the way that information is encoded and communicated makes deep, deep changes. For example, rather than searching for the right words to use, or labeling the feelings, F-EFT will tell the client, “Go inside and notice how you know that you have a problem,” and then we tap. Notice that we allowing the client’s subconscious mind to do all of the work, and we are tapping at subconscious structure or process rather than content.

In terms of F-EFT, tapping doesn’t make sense until you know that problems are created within us, based on our body’s reactions. Once we understand the structure of a problem, we can change it.

“The tapping process is just one of many tools we use and the least important because you can tap and get no results.”

~ Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFTMeridian tapping is one (and one extremely effective) way to do it. Tapping just happens to make changes faster, deeper and quicker than other methods.

 

Robert Smith says, “The most powerful part of FasterEFT is what we believe to be true, and what we AIM at. It’s not the tapping process. The tapping process is just one of many tools we use.”

FasterEFT uses tapping to break a bad trance and cause a disruption in the mind/body system and in the creative process.

“Tapping disrupts the message.”

~ Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFTAs you start tapping, the structure of problems starts to crumble and disintegrate. The brain changes.iv

 

WHAT DOES THE TAPPING ACCOMPLISH? Modern science shows us that tapping has some pretty spectacular effects. We now have proof that tapping . . . • destroys the neurological connections in the mind|body. • restructures the brain. • rewires neural pathways. • causes the brain to recode itself. • changes the emotional attachments we have within us.

As you can imagine, this creates changes at a deep, unconscious, cellular level.

F-EFT maintains that tapping breaks bad trances and creates a new trance of peace. The effectiveness of the tapping depends on the person and the depth of their trance. Some people get right into it. Others need to be prompted to move into their internal process.

All the tapping modalities cause chemical changes in the brain. Clients consistently report that they feel “lighter.” You can see their entire physiology lighten up with an onrush of feel-good endorphins.

Tapping creates changes that feel so natural that a client often forgets how bad things once were. That can only mean that profound changes have taken place in the person’s creative process.

Whether you prefer the EFT or FasterEFT philosophy, tapping liberates you from your problems, increases your freedom to choose, and makes life a lot more fun.

THE MOST OBVIOUS DIFFERENCE As you probably know, Faster EFT simplifies the tapping protocol and pares it down to just 5 points: forehead, outer eye, under eye, under collarbone, and wrist.

Difference #4: The Psychological Reversal

“Psychological reversal is caused by self-defeating, negative thinking which often occurs subconsciously and thus outside of your awareness.”

~ Gary Craig, Founder, EFTEFT believes that “Your energy system is a set of electrical circuits and psychological reversal is ‘like your batteries are in backwards.’”

 

So in order for the rest of the process to work, you have to take care of any interfering energy blockages in the system by setting up the tapping with an “even though” statement or affirmation (said three times while tapping on the Karate Chop point or the sore spot).

F-EFT does not believe in psychological reversal.

“If you understand and eliminate the structure of problems there is no psychological reversal.”

~ Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFTAnd if there is no psychological reversal there is no need to make up statements for tapping to be effective.

 

F-EFT focuses on disrupting the brain’s repetitive patterns of reconstructing and replaying negative memories and sensations, thereby keeping them alive.

One of the prime directives of our subconscious mind is to keep us safe. And one of the ways the subconscious does this is by resisting change because, from a childlike perspective, how we learned to approach life when we were young is how we stay safe. So certainly, one needs to neutralize or overcome the natural resistance to change. Fortunately, since we are working directly with the subconscious mind and all its resources, if there is any fear or resistance, we need only tap and say some reassuring words: “Let go of the resistance.” “It’s safe to let it go.” “I made it through that event and I’m here now safe.” “It’s no big deal.” “And I’m okay.” “Peace.”

EFT psychological reversal affirmations look clumsy by comparison. Their elimination makes FasterEFT cleaner and . . . well . . . faster. The word that comes to mind is streamlined.

Perhaps you will agree.

Difference #5: Emotions

No matter which modality we’re working with, we have to address the emotions. They are the juice behind the memories and they are what make memories seem real. Emotions drive our behavior without our consciously knowing why we act the way we do.

If you know anything about tapping you know that if you don’t aim the tapping at an emotion, you can tap until the cows come home and nothing will change. After all, the inability to deal with emotions lies at the heart of all the matters we work with, from addictions to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder to an endless list of lifelong themes such as abandonment, struggle and betrayal.

EFT requires you to identify and name specific emotions and treat them as separate aspects of a memory. If we fail to do that, we will not succeed in erasing the negative experience.

With FasterEFT, there is no need to be precise and no need to name the emotion.

FasterEFT aims at collapsing the entire program of the memory (how a person recorded and replays an event over and over). That way, we capture all aspects at one time.

THE UNCONSCIOUS PROVIDES THE ANSWERS The unconscious does all the work. It’s not just letting go of emotions, but pictures in the mind’s eye, sensations in the body, voices in one’s head. (I’ll cover this in more detail in Difference #7.)

F-EFT asks you to notice what you are doing inside your mind to produce the feelings and feel the emotions while you tap. Just follow the emotions and the physical sensations.

You don’t need to know where they came from or who gave them to you. That is, you don’t necessarily have to find the “root cause event.” All you have to do is have the client “notice how they know that they have a problem.” (This pulls them into trance.) And then your tapping aims at the structure or process of the problem. You’d say to the client, “Let the feeling bother you, and then notice how you know it bothers you.” Then tap and say, “Let it go.” “Let go of everything that supports this memory or feeling.”

How great is that?

JUST AIM AND RELEASE IT The F-EFT practitioner might tell you to notice what you’re doing in your mind. They might say, “What do you have to think about in order to get this feeling or create this problem? How do you know you feel afraid? Where do you feel it in your body? Do you have a tightness in your stomach or your throat or your heart?”

These questions are asking you to recall your experiences in the way you recorded them in memory. What is your perception? What are you doing inside your head to make the problem real? That way, we can aim directly at the problem and its creation.

With FasterEFT’s Super Power TapTM, you can stack memories and negative emotions and let the unconscious mind do the work of collapsing all of them in one fell swoop. Again, you can see the ease and simplicity of this method.

Difference #6: Words

Almost all of my clients are already familiar with EFT by the time they contact me. They have used the EFT or F-EFT process on themselves, are more or less convinced that it works, but haven’t achieved the success they were hoping for. They often tell me they don’t know what to say when tapping. As though there is some sort of magic in saying the right words or having the right script.

In fact, my EFT training told me that the words you use while tapping are important. When I was practicing EFT and working with a client who could not describe what she was feeling, I would refer her to a full page list of emotional feeling words to help her pinpoint the emotion.

THE WORDS AREN’T IMPORTANT With F-EFT, what is important is tapping to let go of the emotion you feel as you recall and replay a memory. There is no need to make up statements for tapping to be effective. You can say, “Whatever this emotion is.” “Whatever it means or represents.” “Wherever it comes from.” “Whatever it attaches to.”

From the standpoint of the practitioner, it’s a simpler process again because there are no scripts to commit to memory.

“Emotions don’t have words.”

~ Robert G. Smith, Founder, FasterEFT 

Difference #7: Process and Protocol

DIAGNOSIS Unlike many energy psychology methods such as TFT and BSSF, neither EFT nor F-EFT requires diagnosis through arm testing. EFT did away with the need for arm testing by tapping on all the body’s meridians for all situations.

INTUITION Skillful EFT practitioners diagnose through intuition. In fact, I think that in order to get dazzling results with EFT, a practitioner has to be intuitive, if not highly intuitive.

Not so with F-EFT. The F-EFT process itself is fairly mechanical, logical and objective. This keeps the practitioner from projecting onto the client. (Too bad. Those of us with strong intuitive skills may miss the little buzz we get when that sixth sense kicks in and we get to wow the client!)

SPECIFICS With EFT, you need a specific target to work on in order to be most effective: a specific conflict, event, symptom, or emotion. Not being specific enough and not addressing all parts or aspects of the problem are considered major mistakes.

As mentioned above, with FasterEFT you do not need to focus on specifics. There is no need to be precise. You as the practitioner don’t even need to know how the problem started or where it came from. What is important is that the client notices how they know they have the problem. Because you’re aiming at what the mind/body is doing internally to produce the emotion right now.

Again, F-EFT aims at the entire program that the mind has created. It’s not a matter of clearing an energy blockage on a specific part or aspect of an issue.

WORK WITHIN THE STRUCTURE The brain/body/mind/heart records what it perceives through the five senses. If we get triggered it’s because we start to remember and replay the memory in our mind. Whatever this memory is, as we think about it, the body starts to make it seem real.

With F-EFT we actually step into the memory as the person starts to relive it, using the same mental strategies and patterns the person relies on to keep the memory alive. We just keep working with the images, thoughts, words, feelings and physical sensations that surface.

ONCE MORE, THE INFLUENCE OF NLP Visual: Do you know because you can’t get the picture out of your mind? Or is it a movie? Are you in the picture or looking in from the outside? Is it black and white or in color? Can you see the faces . . . what are their expressions?

Auditory: Do you know because you’re having a non-stop conversation in your head about it? Are the words you say to yourself your own or someone else’s?

Kinesthetic: Do you know because you feel a sensation in your body? Is there a specific location? Is it an ache? A pain? Is it pressure in your chest? How big is it?

Like a bulldog, the practitioner keeps asking the client to try to get the problem or feeling or memory back. Then we tap away every avenue the subconscious mind had for being able to create the problem. We do this over and over again until there is nothing left of the structure of the problem . . . no emotions, no triggers, no discomfort.

There is strong use of Robert’s TOTEMS model in this system. (TOTEMS stands for Test, Operate, Test, Exit, Make it come back, Switch it.) In F-EFT, “Switch it” or “Flip it” means “Reimprint it.”

Speaking of which . . .

REIMPRINTING The reimprinting process is a key aspect of the F-EFT protocol, and this piece was missing in Classic EFT.

Once we have disrupted and changed all of the ways that a client used to be able to create a problem, and once we have neutralized all of the bad feelings associated with a memory, we are then able to “Flip” a memory.

Flipping means that we literally change what was happening in a memory so that, when we think about it again, it feels good and positive. One way we accomplish this is by changing the facial expressions of the various parties in the memory. Another way would be to send love and understanding back to the younger “you” in the memory. By reimprinting memories, we change the past and create new possibilities for the future.

OTHER PROTOCOLS We practitioners all inject our own personalities into our tapping protocol, according to our own experiences, beliefs, preferences, and prior training.

(You’ve noticed this . . . People who are trained in resolving childhood traumas find that everything can be explained in terms of childhood trauma. People who work with color inject color into their process.) Many EFT practitioners combine EFT with chakras, auras, hypnosis, healing the inner child and Matrix Reimprinting, among other modalities.

But it seems to me that, since Gary Craig’s retirement in 2010, there have been all sorts of changes and additions to the EFT process and protocol and certification training (without his endorsement and to his dismay).

So the practice of EFT is changing and evolving. What I have written about here are the differences I see at this time.

One Last Word

In closing, I want to say that F-EFT is not a rejection of Gary Craig’s work. Not in the least. It is an evolutionary leap.

EFT and Faster EFT are precious, precious gifts to the world. Where Gary paid Callahan $10,000 for the original Callaghan Techniques training and $100,000 for his Voice Technology secret that would allow a practitioner to do the work over the phone (Roger’s view is that what is going on in the energy system is encoded in the voice) you and I get to watch and learn life- changing technologies from Robert Smith’s YouTube videos for free.

Can you think of a greater gift than this?

Special Thanks

I want to express my thanks to Eric B. Robins, MD Urologist and Surgeon, for his generosity in reading the final manuscript of this article and making several valuable suggestions.

Thank you also to Robert G. Smith for his input and for allowing me to quote him so extensively.

It was an honor to include their contributions in this article.

About The Author

I am a certified FasterEFT Practitioner Level III (working on Certified FasterEFT Master Practitioner), who works mainly with people who are committed to a complete life overhaul. In addition to having studied various therapies, I have business certifications in consulting, sales, and human resources and have been in business for myself for 25 years. You can reach me by phone (NY Time): 1-519-679-8734 or 1-800-240-8734 (early-April to early-October) or 941-493-8961 (early-October to early-April) and by email: mia@miadoucet.com or via my website: www.fasterEFTpractitioner.com

____________________________

ENDNOTES:

1Note #1: To make for easier, faster reading, I have used the acronyms: EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), FEFT (FasterEFT) (Faster Emotionally Focused Transformations), BSFF (Be Set Free Fast: “Behavioral & Emotional Symptom Elimination Training For Resolving Excess Emotion: Fear, Anger, Sadness & Trauma.”), NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming), and TFT (Thought Field Therapy).

Note #2: This is by no means an exhaustive list of meridian therapies. If you want to learn more, go to www.meridiantappingtechniques.com

iIn Gary Craig’s own words, “This is to romance for you the idea that we are on the ground floor of a healing high-rise. Nobody has the answer. In the scientific community, you start getting results and you put a theory behind it. That theory explains the results. After a while, when you get different results, you have to change your theory to match the results. That’s how science goes until you finally get an explanation that works. In the meantime, you deal with your workable theories. Maybe in 10 years time EFT will be obsolete.”

iiApparently Dr. Eric Robins, whose EFT testimonial still appears on eftuniverse.com, is of the same opinion:

“I’ve been using EFT, NLP, and hypnosis in my medical practice for 20 years now and thought that I was doing a pretty good job of it. Then I learned about FasterEFT and it has blown my socks off. This is the most powerful, simple, complete, and easy to learn mind/body/emotional healing system I’ve ever encountered. It is fast enough to use in a busy medical practice (or therapy or coaching practice) and the changes you can make in people will border on the miraculous. You will be able to clear emotional issues at a deep enough level that profound physical healing results. If you want to learn how to do EFT at a mastery level, or what it’s evolved into, I highly recommend that you start studying Robert’s materials.”

~ Eric B. Robins, MD Urologist and Surgeon, Co-author, “Your Hands Can Heal You” and “The Power of Prana.”

iii“BE SET FREE FASTSM [BSFF] is a highly focused Energy Therapy method for eliminating the emotional roots and self-limiting belief systems that are embedded in the subconscious mind, and which automatically determine and control most of our experience, self-expression and behavior. These unresolved negative emotions and beliefs create and maintain psychological and physical symptoms, which automatically result in mental, emotional, physical, energetic spiritual and life adjustment problems, including many medical, and health problems. BSFF eliminates these subconscious programs quickly and gently. BE SET FREE FASTSM is a descriptive acronym for “Behavioral & Emotional Symptom Elimination Training For Resolving Excess Emotion: Fear, Anger, Sadness & Trauma.”

iv An excellent book on the topic is “The Brain That Changes Itself” by Norman Doidge, M.D.

vThat’s the sort of pluck that Dr. Roger Callahan, founder of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) required in order to break with traditional psychotherapy. He was the brains behind combining Applied Kinesiology and acupuncture with his knowledge of the human mind to make groundbreaking strides in the world of energy psychology.

It’s the courage EFT’s founder, Gary Craig, needed to break with Dr. Callahan’s elaborate procedure of muscle testing. As a scientist (Gary was a Stanford-trained engineer) he questioned the need for Roger’s algorithms to diagnose which meridians to tap for specific emotions and streamlined the system to tapping on 14 meridians in all situations. He also found that the order in which you tap the points is not important.

It’s the audacity Robert Smith showed in breaking with the 4,000 year old paradigm of traditional Chinese Medicine which claims that pain is caused by a blockage in the flow of life energy. In so doing, he broke with the basic belief system accepted by thousands of practitioners around the world who revere Gary Craig. He did away with the Psychological Reversal, further streamlined the tapping process to five points, incorporated NLP and hypnosis, and continues to study and challenge existing beliefs and modalities.

(This is a bit like Einstein, a mathematician, challenging existing thought and making a breakthrough called Quantum Physics.)

Don’t you just have to respect genius and guts!

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Brain Dance Exercises Page 2

Nutrition Grid

Brain foods

Avocados

Berries

Beans

Broccoli

Low fat dairy

Eggs(DHA)

Oranges

Oats

Olives/ olive oil

Omega 3 oil or flax seed

Peaches/ plums
Red peppers
Salmon
Soy
Spinach
Green Tea
tomatoes
Tuna
Turkey/ chicken
Walnuts
Yogurt

Nutritional Resources

  • The Kid-Friendly ADHD and Autism Cookbook, Pamela J Compart, MD

and Dana Laake, RDH

  • Westonaprice.org
  • Mercola.com
  • Nourishing Traditions by Sally Fallon
  • Enzymes for Autism by Karen DeFelice
  • The Crazy Makers by Carol Simontacchi
  • The Kid-Friendly Food Allergy Cookbook
  • ADD the Natural Approach by Nina Anderson
  • Body Ecology Diet by Donna Gates
  • Breaking the Vicious Cycle by Elaine Gotshall
  • Exitotoxins by Russell Blaylock, MD
  • Cindy Adams Certified Nutritionst with Tri-Life Health
  • http://www.trilifehealth.com

Nutrition

Dietary Dangers :  Don’ts

Therapeutic Lifestyle Do’s

  •     All processed foods and “white” foods
  •     Refined sweeteners
  •     Excitotoxins
  •     Processed homogenized/pasteurized dairy
  •     Refined Grains
  •     Refined oils
  •     Cured meats with preservatives     (nitrates/ites)
  •     Transfats ie. Hydrogenated oils
  •     Known allergy/sensitivities to foods
  •     Soy and Corn
  •     Soda, fruit juice and sports drinks
  •     Artificial Colors, caramel color, vanillin,     BHA, BHT, EDTA etc.
  •     Food Pyramid (Developed to fatten hogs)

 

  •     Whole foods
  •     Organics (shoot for 90% and ONLY organic     pork)
  •     Grass fed meats, free range poultry, wild caught     fish
  •     Whole milk dairy (raw milk)
  •     Organic eggs
  •     Raw nuts/seeds (organic)
  •     Whole grains (limit 1 serving/daily)
  •     Traditional oils/fats (butter, palm, EVO)
  •     Natural sweeteners (agave nectar, xylitol,     stevia, local raw honey)
  •     Filtered water
  •     Cookware:      stainless steel, cast iron, glass or quality enamel
  •     Reduce stress (RAD have higher cortisol     levels)
  •     Sleep/exercise
  •     Supplements (enzymes)

 

Special Diets to Consider

Gluten Free / Casein     Free / Candida Diet / IgG elimination Diet / Low Oxalate Diet (Hard to     follow but great success with Autism) / Feingold/SCD

 

Reading Activity Helps

Suggested Activities to Improve Reading Fluency, Decoding and Comprehension: Session One Handout

 

 

  • Listen to a book on tape while you      follow along with the book.       Libraries have these in teen sections/children’s sections/adult      sections.

 

  • Read aloud into a tape recorder and      listen to your voice reading.

 

  • Listen to audio books on tape/CD while      driving or settling down before sleep.       Castle Rock Library now offers audiobooks on MP3 as well.

 

  • Web site   librevox.com   offers free downloadable novels and      classic literature for MP3 files.

 

  • Obtain Language Roots game at a local      bookstore.  Understanding the Greek      and Latin roots for words assists in the decoding of words.  For example, understanding meanings of      prefix/suffix’ such as “un” and “ed” will assist you in      spelling/comprehension/phonics.

 

  • When overwhelmed by text on the computer      screen, you can click “tools” and then under that click on      “autosummarize”.  This will give you      several options such as a) summarize the article, b) highlight the key      parts in yellow, c)etc.

 

  • PHONEMIC AWARE-NESS Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. The first level in pho-nemic awareness is hearing and recognizing rhyming words. Nurs-ery rhymes are a fun way for the younger kids to achieve this and reading and composing rhyming poetry will build this skill for the older kids. Have fun and keep on reading!

 

  • Before taking a test on reading material, read through the material several times.  The first time through after lecture, highlight the information you did not remember in a light color like yellow.  The second time through, highlight the information you did not recall THIS time in a slightly darker color, and so on and so on.  Lastly, just focus on what is only highlighted.  In this way, you will activate your visual memory with color, repetition and so forth.

 

  • The goal is to enjoy reading so let them read anything:  Magazines ; series on a favorite topic (Ask librarians for ideas); book club as a family; books on tape on family trips

 

Jaynee Hodgkins Brain Integration Specialist JMHodgkins@msn.com Effective February, 2011

Brain Dance Exercises Page 1

Highly Sensitive Child Test

The Highly Sensitive Child :  Helping our Children Thrive When the World Overwhelms Them.

Elaine N. Aron Ph.D

Is Your Child Highly Sensitive?

A Parent’s Questionnaire

Please answer each question as best you can.  Answer TRUE if it is true or at least moderately true of your child, or was for a substantial time in the past.  Answer FALSE if it has not been very true of your child, or was never true.

My child…

  1. T              F              startles easily.
  2. T              F              complains about scratchy clothing, seams in socks, or labels against his/her skin.
  3. T              F              doesn’t usually enjoy big surprises.
  4. T              F              learns better from a gentle correction than strong punishment.
  5. T              F              seems to read my mind.
  6. T              F              uses big words for his/her age.
  7. T              F              notices the slightest unusual odor.
  8. T              F              has a clever sense of humor.
  9. T              F              seems very intuitive.
  10. T              F              is hard to get to sleep after an exciting day.
  11. T              F              doesn’t do well with big changes.
  12. T              F              wants to change clothes if wet or sandy.
  13. T              F              asks lots of questions.
  14. T              F              is a perfectionist.
  15. T              F              notices the distress of others.
  16. T              F              prefers quiet play.
  17. T              F              asks deep, thought-provoking questions.
  18. T              F              is very sensitive to pain.
  19. T              F              is bothered by noisy places.
  20. T              F              notices subtleties (something that’s been moved, a change in a person’s                                                              appearance, etc.).
  21. T              F              considers if it is safe before climbing high.
  22. T              F              performs best when strangers aren’t present.
  23. T              F              feels things deeply.

 

 

Scoring:

Math Helps for Right Brained Learner and Beyond

Math Helps for the Right Brained Learner and Beyond…

  • Use graph paper to assist with visual spatial issues
  • Use kinesthetic teaching methods (movement while learning) such as:  stress balls; exercise balls; allow students to stand; throw a ball or other movement while learning new concepts or repetitive info such as math facts
  • Allow gum chewing especially during testing to enhance emotional grounding (stimulates the sphenoid nerve bundle at the roof of the mouth)
  • Cover all but the problem the student is working on.  Right brained students tend to see the big picture (every problem on the page) and therefore become overwhelmed and shut down into fight/flight mode.  By only allowing them to see one problem at a time you will help them chunk down the work
  • Give the why and how.  Right brained students need to see emotional relevance to self in order to retain information.  They like to know WHY they need to know the information and HOW they will use it in the future.  Also utilizing other senses is a great way for them to recall long term. Example, teach fractions by cooking.
  • Repetition.  Right brained learners require repetition in learning especially in the subject of math. Out of sight out of mind for them so keep recalling information until it is automatic and reflexive.
  • Calm down the fight/flight Vagus nerve response that right brain students tend to go into during testing or concepts that are hard to grasp.  While in this “fear brain” they will react somatically (physically) rather than think responsively.  This can be done be doing exercises before testing or class instruction.  When you see a student begin to “shut down”, physical movement is the quickest way to “re boot” their computer and get them back up into the rational brain.
  • Consider the student’s Dominant Learning Profile (Dr. Carla Hannaford).  For example, a left eye dominant student will read from right to left rather left to right which can make reading English a challenge.  It also results in transversals and reversals of numbers.  The hand / eye exercises will assist with that issue as well.

 

 

Jaynee Hodgkins Brain Integration Specialist JMHodgkins@msn.com Effective October, 2010

Example Profile: Left Brain Learner

Profile of a Left Brained Learner

Jaynee Hodgkins, Brain Integration Specialist

  • Very detail oriented
  • Tends to stay focused on what they are interested in
  • Tend to be auditory learners (this can change depending on their dominant learning profile, ie. If Student is both an auditory and visual learner)
  • A logical linear thinker who appreciates mathematics more than writing.  Will tend to not like writing stories and may become very frustrated during writing projects if stuck in left brain.  May have trouble coming up with ideas and expressing thoughts and feelings on paper.
  • Under stress, communication may be shut down (expressive and receptive)
  • Has the ability to follow step by step instructions
  • May have trouble seeing the “big picture” or coming up with big ideas for projects.  May get stuck on the details (ie. “can’t see the forest for the trees”).
  • Time Conscious
  • When under stress may try harder with lots of effort but with no joy, comprehension or understanding
  • Verbal learner who needs to talk,  process, analyze to learn
  • Tends to print
  • Takes notes

 

Tips for parents and teachers working with the left brained learner

The typical left brained student may be a very good student for some things such as math and computers.  Oftentimes they have difficulty expressing themselves in writing and they may become very frustrated with writing projects and have trouble “shutting down” on tests that require essay answers.  Boys who are started in academics at a very young age before they are ready for more left brained and fine motor skills, may get stuck in left brained “try” mode for school and typically writing issues show up between 3rd and 5th grade.  Highly intelligent, easily frustrated, these learners can find relief by sitting on an exercise ball to stimulate the inner ear (especially during writing exercises and homework).  Encouraging water and giving them a picture as a prompt can also help them communicate in writing more efficiently.

 

If the Student is not a completely left brained learner because he is mixed dominant (left hand/right eye) he may be more visual.  He is therefore more of a visual learner than auditory under stress and will appreciate pictures/charts/posters etc.

Student may benefit from sitting either further back or on the side where his movement doesn’t disturb others.  Moving is a way for students to “attend” by stimulating the vestibular inner ear.  When calm, helping him explore ambiguity, emotions and movement can help him see things from a whole picture perspective.

“Positive enjoyable sensory-motor experiences will help develop the skills necessary to emotionally interact and fully access imagination, creativity and introspection.”  (The Dominance Factor by Carla Hannaford, PhD.)

Student would benefit from seeing and hearing the details in order to learn because he is both an auditory and a visual learner.  “Because his dominant left hand is connected to the kinesthetic gestalt hemisphere, he may need to move, touch and manually explore in order to organize and express information”.  Throwing a ball while practicing math facts or spelling words can help.

  • Help Student learn math facts and spelling words, vocabulary etc. by utilizing flash cards in the upper left field of vision while he says the item aloud.  He can thereby take a mental snapshot of the information and it becomes more reflexive.
  • Put visual cues/steps/lists up for him to see
  • In class, allowing him to put up a cubbie or an office during class work will help minimize distraction.  If he is working with a group of students and becomes distracted by them, you may want to set up a sign whereby you know he needs less distraction ie.  He goes back to his seat and works quietly alone.
  • Parents can encourage exercises at home that reverse the fight/flight or “deer in the headlights” process that happen for these kids.  Teachers can encourage water and breaks or other tools that work for that student
  • In elementary school allow him to sit on an exercise ball at his desk to stimulate the inner ear (provides focus and emotional grounding)
  • In non stressed environment they can communicate but as they get stressed communication can become “shut down”.  Physical movement (a walk, a drink of water) can help them reboot quicker to be able to think rationally.
  • They can become overwhelmed during testing situation and revert to fight/flight (where no rational thought is going on) because they see entire test.  Having them hide all but one question from themselves will help
  • If student is mixed dominant (ie. left handed and right eyed) this can cause reversals in reading and writing as well as how they understand instructions given (in other words it can cause confusion)
  • Physically active, non-competitive activities that cross the midline of the body will help integrate this learner and provide stress relief (marital arts, swimming, soccer, knitting)
  • Student exhibits some Sensory Integration Dysfunction which is demonstrable by louder noises and frenetic activity.  BIT will help his “filters” come back to a homeostatic place.  A great resource is “The Out of Sync Child” by Carol Kranowitz
  • See Bibliography for more ideas

Jaynee Hodgkins, RN BSN pHn

JMHodgkins@msn.com 303-883-6109

Example Profile: Right Brained Learner

Profile of a Right Brained Learner

Jaynee Hodgkins, Brain Integration Specialist

  • Sees the big picture, misses details.
  • Needs help chunking down assignments and projects.  Needs help in life skills with same approach (ie. organizing room and check book)
  • Needs to understand the emotional relevance to themselves in order to learn (why do I need to know this?)
  • Although they learn visually, they don’t have a great visual memory (so they forget math facts and spelling words and need repetition)
  • Oftentimes self medicate with caffeine or other substance to integrate their thinking
  • Typically kinesthetic learners (need to move to learn best and to focus)
  • Oftentimes tilt their chairs or stand up to stimulate the vestibular inner ear in order to better concentrate and attend
  • Typically visually distracted so seeing a window or kids messing around makes it hard to concentrate.  Also have struggles seeing and hearing at the same time (can’t concentrate on what you are saying while watching at the same time)
  • Right brain learners need more repetition.
  • This learner has difficulty organizing their life and  homework because they see the big picture and get overwhelmed and don’t know where to start
  • They can become overwhelmed during testing situation and revert to fight/flight (where no rational thought is going on) because they see entire test.  Having them hide all but one question from themselves will help
  • If student is mixed dominant (ie. Right handed and left eyed) this can cause reversals in reading and writing as well as how they understand instructions given (in other words it can cause confusion)
  • In non stressed environment they can communicate but as they get stressed communication can become “shut down”.  Physical movement (a walk, a drink of water) can help them reboot quicker to be able to think rationally.

 

 

 

 

Tips for parents and teachers working with the right brained learner

The typical student seen in special education is the child who is right brained, kinesthetic with poor focus.  Oftentimes they do great once out of school in fields where they can be big picture thinkers or very kinesthetic (emergency medicine, fire fighters, artistic careers, construction, culinary).  Working with this profile of a student can be very challenging in a left brain linear academic system and also for life skills.

 

  • This learner appreciates metaphors and examples
  • Appreciates getting to “do” something as part of learning process
  • Appreciate “why” they need to know this information and how they will use it in life
  • In elementary school allow them to sit on an exercise ball at their desk to stimulate the inner ear (provides focus and emotional grounding)
  • In middle school they may need to stand at their desk or utilize things like stress balls.  There are also mats they can sit on that help them “move” without being a nuisance.  At home, parents can allow student to sit on ball during homework
  • Allow them to sit in back or along the side so their fidgeting doesn’t distract others
  • Allow them to sit on the side of the room that is their dominant eye with access to their dominant ear
  • Don’t face them towards windows or distracting students if possible
  • Help them learn math facts and spelling words, vocabulary etc. by utilizing flash cards in the upper left field of vision while they say the item aloud.  Right brain learners need more repetition.
  • Instructions given orally would be better if included a visual handout or visual cue
  • If the learner has auditory processing issues in relation to writing, they have a lot of trouble taking notes given orally.  Lectures can be difficult for these kids if the lecture doesn’t include many of the senses
  • On writing or other school projects parents can assist student by talking them through the big picture the student has expressed, and teaching them how to outline and chunk the work down.  Teacher awareness of this weakness can help partner in this goal
  • Parents should consider offering tutoring in LA and mathematics during the summer so that information is not lost.  For these learners it becomes “out of sight out of mind” and they need more repetition
  • In class, allowing student to put up a cubbie or an office during class work will help minimize distraction
  • Parents can encourage exercises at home that reverse the fight/flight or “deer in the headlights” process that happen for these kids.  Teachers can encourage water and breaks or other tools that work for that student
  • Other ideas that work?

Stress Research

New Research on Stress Eric Jensen March 2011;
Why You Should Finally Take Charge of It… Now

What’s more personal these days than stress?

Whether it’s stress in your students, stress in your own family or life, it seems that it’s on the rise.  You might be feeling the twinge from job insecurity, school testing, your health, your parent’s health, or issues with your own kids.

None of this sounds good. But, what does stress REALLY do to your body and your brain?

First, let’s get something squared away. Stress is real; it’s the body’s response. It’s what you feel. But it’s only the response to a perception. The perception could be real or imagined. But it’s always the perception of loss of control over an adverse situation or person. In other words, the stress you experience is always about how you deal with life.

There are no stressful jobs, no stressful people and certainly no stressful classrooms. But there are teachers who experience stress in their dealings with those issues. If you think the stress is “out there,” you’ll always be miserable. Why? The world “out there” will never change.

But your brain is malleable; you’ve heard me say that for years. If you allow yourself to experience life as highly stressful, your brain will adapt to that higher stress load. It’s called “allostasis”; the word means “adjusted stability.” Your brain literally resets its own stress thermostat, so a higher stress load becomes the “new norm.” Examples of a “new norm” are depression, general anxiety disorder, PTSD, and chronic stress disorders. Bruce McEwen from Rockefeller University is a pioneer in this field.

Why should you care about all this science? Why care about allostasis and chronic aging? We’ll get to that in a moment.

Under a strong microscope, your chromosomes look like cartoon characters. They have what looks like yellow bootie caps (shoes, not butts) on their ends. These caps look like stacked rubber bands and they’re known as telomeres. Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes.

But they’re the “canary in the coal mine” because they offer insight into cell longevity. Telomeres are like the ‘toner cartridge’ in your chromosome’s ‘copy machine.’ Your cells need to make copies when they damaged, and when you run out of ‘toner’ your ‘copy machine is useless.’ You start life with enough ‘toner’ for about 1700 total copies. By the time you’re 70, you’re down to 300 ‘copies’ left. The relevance of this is that telomeres are a strong indicator of aging.

Enough of the science background. Let’s get to something personal, like those signs of aging in your body.

 

Chronic stress is significantly associated with known determinants of aging (shorter, fewer telomeres) in healthy premenopausal women. You should care about chronic stress as it is now shown to accelerate aging.  Women with the highest levels of perceived stress have telomeres shorter on average by the equivalent of at least one decade of additional aging compared to low stress women (Epel et al., 2004). In fact, women under chronic stress aged 9-17 YEARS faster than their peers. This process also contributes to cognitive decline as well (Karlamangla et al. 2002).

What else accelerates aging, based on the measure of telomere markers? Have you felt a little crabby and grumpy lately? We know pessimism may accelerate the rate of telomere shortening and increase aging (O’Donovan et al., 2009). In men, poorer health, erratic sleep behaviors, financial insecurity, and occupational status all influence chronic stress indicators. Between both sexes, social rejection events and negative self-referential cognitions (e.g., “I’m undesirable”, “Other people don’t like me”, etc.) contribute to the stress response and potential acceleration of aging.

By the way, in the remote case you are unconcerned about accelerated aging, here are some of the other adverse effects of chronic stress: worsened short term memory, weaker social skills, increased susceptibility to illness, inability to concentrate, slower cognitive processing, weaker decision-making (Lupien, et al., 2007) and did I already mention poor short term memory?

In addition, the more stressed we are, the less likely one is to make changes in their life; chronic stress increases perseverative behaviors (“we get stuck”).

Applications and Contributions

Have I gotten you depressed? Is there any good news? Can anything recover your life and even those pesky indicators of aging known as telomeres? Actually, there are many ways to reduce the effects of chronic stress. As usual, it boils down to mind and body.

So far, the science has measured two things that actually slow aging (and no, it is not another product from Olay or L’Oreal!)

In one study, vigorous physical activity appears to protect those experiencing high stress by buffering its relationship with telomere shortening. Mild physical exercise (going for walks every day) does not appear to have the same beneficial effects as vigorous activity (30 minutes a day.) For this, may I suggest a book? The Four-hour Body by Tim Ferriss, is one of the best.

The other intervention is to improve your mental outlook. Being optimistic, increasing positive states of mind and being happier about your life’s situation seems to help (Moskowitz JT, Epel ES, Acree M. 2008). We also know meditation works (Jacobs TL, et al. 2010). Intensive meditation, which helps one gain mindfulness, may have positive effects on telomere length by reducing cognitive stress and stress arousal.   This was the first study to link meditation and positive psychological change with telomerase activity.

For more on this, may I suggest a book? The book is Thanks!: How Practicing Gratitude Can Make You Happier by Robert Emmons.

Oh, one other thing: in nearly every autobiography written by those over the age of 50, they lament how they wish they would have worried less and let go of things more. Today’s a good day to start that in your own life. If it won’t matter in a week, it might not be worth fussing over.

Use your brain, and remember, brain-based education says, “Be purposeful about it.” Now, go have some fun and make another miracle happen (maybe in your own life!)

CITATIONS:

Adam TC, Epel ES. (2007) Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav. Jul 24;91(4):449-58

Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Adler NE, Morrow JD, Cawthon RM.

(2004) Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U
S A. Dec 7;101(49):17312-5

Epel ES, Lin J, Wilhelm FH, Wolkowitz OM, Cawthon R, Adler NE, Dolbier C, Mendes WB, Blackburn EH. (2006) Cell aging in relation to stress arousal and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Psychoneuroendocrinology. Apr;31(3):277-87

Jacobs TL, et al. (2010) Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. Oct 29

Karlamangla AS, Singer BH, McEwen BS, Rowe JW, Seeman TE. (2002) Allostatic load as a predictor of functional decline: MacArthur studies of successful aging. J Clin Epidemiol. 29:696–710.

Lupien SJ, Maheu F, Tu M, Fiocco A, Shrmaek TE. (2007) The effect of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: Implications for the field of brain and cognition. Brain Cogn. 65:209–237.

McEwen BS, Gianaros PJ. (2011) Stress- and allostasis-induced brain plasticity. Annu Rev Med. Feb 18;62:431-4

Moskowitz JT, Epel ES, Acree M. (2008) Positive affect uniquely predicts lower risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Health Psychol. Jan;27(1 Suppl):S73-82

O’Donovan A, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Wolkowitz O, Tillie JM, Blackburn E, Epel E. (2009) Pessimism correlates with leukocyte telomere shortness and elevated interleukin-6 in post-menopausal women. Brain Behav Immun. May;23(4):446-9.

Puterman E, Lin J, Blackburn E, O’Donovan A, Adler N, Epel E. (2010) The power of exercise: buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length. PLoS One. May 26;5(5):e1083

Sapolsky R. (2004) Stress and cognition. In: Gazzaniga M, editor. The Cognitive Neurosciences. Vol 3. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2004.

Seeman TE, McEwen BS, Rowe JW, Singer BH. (2001) Allostatic load as a marker of biological risk: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 98:4770–4775.

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